NATO Enlargement Amidst Russia’s War in Ukraine

This Perspective examines the contributions that Finland and Sweden can make to the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) as the newest NATO Allies, having joined in response to Russia‘s illegal invasion of Ukraine in February 2022. It examines the path each nation took towards NATO membership, after a long history of armed neutrality and military non-alignment. It also explores the capabilities and expertise that Finland and Sweden bring to the Alliance in terms not only of their armed forces but also their approaches to innovation, security, resilience and emergency preparedness. This builds on prior RAND Europe research on opportunities to deepen cooperation in the Nordic-Baltic region and ways to enhance defence and deterrence on NATO’s northern flank more broadly, including in the Arctic.

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Funding for this work was provided by gifts from RAND supporters and income from operations. The work was conducted by RAND Europe.

This commentary is part of the RAND expert insight series. RAND Expert Insights present perspectives on timely policy issues. All RAND Expert Insights undergo peer review to ensure high standards for quality and objectivity.

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